Success! I tested an export from 4.0b8, and there is now a picture! I had some scaling issues at first, but with a little testing, I found they were due to a problem with my project, and was able to fix it.
Annoyingly, though, a common screen tearing issue I was having with Godot 3.x has reared its ugly little head again.
This seems to be a common issue on older versions of Android when using GLES3. So, this is excellent progress, but all that remains now is to wait and hope that they re-add GLES2 support.